What are BIO-Pesticides??
What are Biopesticides?
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides. As of April 2016, there are 299 registered biopesticide active ingredients and 1401 active biopesticide product registrations.
Classes of Biopesticides
Biopesticides fall into three major classes:
Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms. Conventional pesticides, by contrast, are generally synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the pest. Biochemical pesticides include substances that interfere with mating, such as insect sex pheromones, as well as various scented plant extracts that attract insect pests to traps. Because it is sometimes difficult to determine whether a substance meets the criteria for classification as a biochemical pesticide, EPA has established a special committee to make such decisions.
Microbial pesticides consist of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) as the active ingredient. Microbial pesticides can control many different kinds of pests, although each separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its target pest[s]. For example, there are fungi that control certain weeds and other fungi that kill specific insects.
The most widely used microbial pesticides are subspecies and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt. Each strain of this bacterium produces a different mix of proteins and specifically kills one or a few related species of insect larvae. While some Bt ingredients control moth larvae found on plants, other Bt ingredients are specific for larvae of flies and mosquitoes. The target insect species are determined by whether the particular Bt produces a protein that can bind to a larval gut receptor, thereby causing the insect larvae to starve.
Plant-Incorporated-Protectants (PIPs) are pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. For example, scientists can take the gene for the Bt pesticidal protein and introduce the gene into the plant’s own genetic material. Then the plant, instead of the Bt bacterium, manufactures the substance that destroys the pest. The protein and its genetic material, but not the plant itself, are regulated by EPA.
- Biopesticides are usually inherently less toxic than conventional pesticides.
- Biopesticides generally affect only the target pest and closely related organisms, in contrast to broad spectrum, conventional pesticides that may affect organisms as different as birds, insects and mammals.
- Biopesticides often are effective in very small quantities and often decompose quickly, resulting in lower exposures and largely avoiding the pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides.
- When used as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, biopesticides can greatly reduce the use of conventional pesticides, while crop yields remain high.
To use biopesticides effectively (and safely), however, users need to know a great deal about managing pests and must carefully follow all label directions.
EM For Pest Control
EM is not a pesticide and contains no inorganic chemicals. EM is a microbial inoculant that works as a bio-control measure in suppressing and/or controlling pests through the introduction of beneficial micro-organisms to soil and plants. Pests and pathogens are suppressed or controlled through natural processes by enhancing the competitive and antagoniostic activities of the micro-organisms in the EM inoculants.
Lactic acid bacteria which is a major ingredient in EM will suppress pathogenic microbes both directly, and indirectly, through the production of actinomycetes.
Also the beneficial yeast in EM produces Salicyclic acid which have antibiotics properties. EM produces an antioxidant effect which improves the immune system of plants and animals.
Also the photosynthetic bacteria in EM helps in enhancing the photosynthetic capacity of plant and also synthesis of bioactive substances which helps in improving the general immunity of plant.
EM can also be used to make fermented pest repellent using plant with high levels of medicinal bioactive substances( I.e plant with bitter taste and strong smell like been,garlic,Mexican marigold, tithonia difosfolia,lantana ,aloe vera etc)